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  •    发表于7年前 (2015-12-27)  理论动态 |   1 条评论  346 
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    导语:本文改编自新加坡国立大学李光耀公共政策学院院长·马凯硕(Kishore Mahbubani),在新加坡陆路交通管理局“未来流动性研讨会”的开幕词。“零拥车”,对于城市和交通管理者而言,这是一个激动人心的梦。不得不说,新加坡有着高效的公共部门,有着发达的公共交通系统,在加上共享无人驾驶技术的突飞猛进,所以新加坡有做这个梦的资格——也许,新加坡的这个梦将会在未来很快实现。

    "I have a dream."

    “我有一个梦。”

    马丁·路德·金的话,人尽皆知。1963 年,解放非洲裔美国人的梦想,还遥不可及。然而,几十年之后,巴拉克·奥巴马就任美国总统,那个不可能的梦想变成了现实。同样,我希望,我遥不可及的梦想,有一天会实现。

    Martin Luther King made these few words famous. His dream of African-American emancipation seemed impossible in 1963. Yet, a few decades later, Barack Obama became president. Impossible dreams can come true. I hope that my impossible dream will also come true.

    2050 年,没有新加坡人会拥有私家车。

    In 2050, no Singaporean will own private cars.

    的确,路上依然有车,但所有的车都是共享、无人驾驶车辆,人们使用智能手机呼之即来。麻省理工学院的一项研究表明,采用共享车队的方式,新加坡的机动车数量可以从 90 万减少到 30 万。车变少了,用于修路的土地面积可以由 12% 下降至 6%。腾出的大部分空间,可以用来建公园、自行车和慢跑道,甚至带空调的人行道。这些公共空间和绿地,会让新加坡焕然一新,居民倍感振奋。

    Yes, there will be cars on the roads. But all these cars will be shared self-driven cars which we will summon with our smart phones. A Massachusetts Institute of Technology study has shown that with a shared fleet, the number of vehicles in Singapore can go down from 900,000 to 300,000. With fewer cars, we can cut the amount of land we devote to roads from 12 per cent to as little as 6 per cent. That's a massive amount of new space for parks, cycling and jogging tracks, and even air-conditioned walkways. Singaporeans will gain a significant psychological boost from all this open space and greenery.

    这个遥不可及的梦想,怎么才能实现呢?显然,第一步,是要摆脱对汽车的崇拜。理论上讲,汽车只是一种功能性仪器,与冰箱、洗衣机和吹风机,并无二异。实际上,我们并不崇拜吹风机或洗衣机。可是,许多新加坡人每个周日早早起床,只为了擦亮自己的爱车!

    How can we make this impossible dream come true? The first step is clear. We have to stop worshipping our cars. In theory, a car is a functional instrument, just like a refrigerator, washing machine or hairdryer. We don't worship our hairdryers or washing machines. Yet, many Singaporeans wake up early every Sunday to polish their cars!

    汽车梦是一个“美国梦”。美国幅员辽阔,土地充裕,汽车已经融入美国人的生活,成为不可或缺的一部分。难怪如此之多的美国作家,像马克·吐温、斯科特·菲茨杰拉德和杰克·凯鲁亚克,受汽车文化的启迪,妙笔生花,写下在开阔公路放车疾驰的篇章。

    The dream of car ownership is an American dream. It makes sense that cars are integral to American life, where spaces are vast and there is so much land. It's no wonder so many American writers have been inspired to write about going on the open road, including Mark Twain, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Jack Kerouac.

    可是,新加坡很小,很小。如果像美国一样,每个新加坡家庭拥有两辆车,那么就会有240万汽车,它们蜂拥上路,会造成无休无止的交通大瘫痪。这情形如同人间地狱一般,恐怖可憎。

    But Singapore is tiny. If each Singapore household has two cars, like most American households do, there would be a whopping 2.4 million cars creating perpetual gridlock on our roads. It will be a living hell.

    换个角度来看,假设一半的人拥有汽车,而另外一半没有,没有车的那一半人会感觉到不幸福,他们的出行权利被剥夺了。简言之,在寸土寸金的新加坡,如果我们仍坚持做“美国梦”,那么我们正在创造一种持续不幸福的生存模式。这就是为什么我们要放弃那个拥有汽车的“美国梦”。

    On the other hand, if only half of the population own cars, the half who do not own cars will feel perpetually unhappy and deprived. In short, if we persist in dreaming the American dream in land-scarce Singapore, we are creating a formula for perpetual unhappiness. That is why we have to give up this American dream of car ownership.

    为此,我们需要一个切实可行的替代方案。要实现一个“零拥车”社会,第二步,是打造世界上最优秀的公交生态系统。在这个系统中,地铁、公交车和出租车都可以整合到一个无缝系统中。

    To do so, we need a viable alternative. The second step to achieving a zero-car-ownership society is thus to build the world's best ecosystem of public transport, in which the trains, buses and taxis are all integrated into one seamless system.

    我们有能力做到这一点,因为新加坡已经拥有了世界上最好的公共服务。我们的公共服务一贯强调以质量为先,确保了政府政策的有效实施。

    We are well equipped to do this, because we already have the world's best public service. The impressive quality of mind in our public service allows it to implement government policies efficiently.

    但另一方面,人们并不认为我们的私营部门是世界上最好的。如果公共部门比私营部门工作得更好,为什么还让私营部门去运营公共交通?为什么不“去私有化”、让公共部门直接来经营公共交通呢?

    On the other hand, our private sector is not considered the best in the world. If our public sector works much better than our private sector, why are we asking our private sector to take care of our public transport? Why not de-privatise public transport?

    实现一个“零拥车”社会的第三步,是将公交系统置于一个新公共部门的管辖之下,这个部门可以处理公交涉及的所有业务,并将它们整合到一个生态系统之中。

    The third step to achieving a zero-car-ownership society is to place our public transport system in the hands of a new public sector agency which can handle all the public transport limbs and integrate them into one ecosystem.

    我们曾经这样做过,创建了住房委员会来提供公共住房。一直以来,住房委员会创造出了最安全、干净的公共住房,新加坡的房产所有权水平也是世界最高的。

    We have done this before, when we created the Housing Board to handle public housing. HDB went on to create the safest and cleanest public housing combined with the highest level of home ownership in the world.

    我们还创立了经济发展委员会,通过为外资提供“一站式”服务,来提升新加坡的经济发展水平。经济发展委员会帮助我们这个仅有五百万人的小国,吸引到了比2.5亿人的印度尼西亚更多的外资。

    We also created the Economic Development Board (EDB) to promote the economic development of Singapore by providing a single window for all foreign investment in Singapore. EDB helped our small country of five million people attract more foreign investment than Indonesia, which has 250 million people.

    与此类似,我们可以创立一个公共交通委员会,来管理所有的公交事务,将新加坡的地铁、公共汽车、出租车和共享车辆(包括用于出租的自行车和摩托车)融为一体。这个系统旨在为所有新加坡公民的出行需要提供服务,同时将逐渐减少人们对拥有私车的需要,缓解人们对拥有私车的渴望。

    Similarly, a Public Transport Board (PTB) could be created to manage all the limbs of our public transport, merging all the trains, buses, taxis and shared vehicles in Singapore (including bicycles and scooters for hire). The goal of this system would be to provide all the mobility that Singapore citizens need while gradually reducing the need or incentives for private car ownership.

    我们之所以在 2015 年可以做这个遥不可及的梦,而不是在 1975 年或 1985 年,正是由于现代科技的突飞猛进。今年 10 月,我在硅谷亲眼目睹了谷歌和特斯拉在无人汽车方面的飞跃。一些智库和咨询公司已经着手研究无人汽车可能带来的影响。

    The reason why we can dream this impossible dream in 2015 and not in 1975 or 1985 is that modern technology is changing faster. I was in Silicon Valley in October and saw first-hand what great strides Google and Tesla have made with self-driving cars. Several think-tanks and consulting companies have already begun studying the likely impact of self-driving cars.

    例如,德勤列举了采用共享、无人驾驶车队的许多好处,通勤成本、交通事故、违法行为、拥堵次数、尾气排放(降幅高达 90%)都会大幅减少。社会弱势群体,比如老年人,出行会更加方便。

    For example, Deloitte has named many benefits of a shared, driverless fleet - including sharp drops in commuting costs, the number of traffic accidents, the number of broken traffic laws, the number of jams, and the amount of vehicle emissions (as much as 90 per cent). Underserved segments of society, such as seniors, can become more mobile.

    自动驾驶系统甚至可以提高物流速度,降低流通成本。

    Autonomous systems can even increase the speed and reduce the cost of deliveries.

    随着 Airbnb 和 Uber 这样的服务出现,人们对所有权的态度正在发生改变,发展公交生态系统的时机开始成熟。财务理性模糊了所有权的界限,私宅和私车可以改头换面,成为酒店和出租车。对于新加坡家庭而言,转向公共交通当然更为理性。拥有一辆丰田凯美瑞,一年大约需要两万美元,如果考虑维修、燃油、停车和拥挤费等开销,支出会更多。另一方面,如果从 TransitLink(新加坡通联公司)购买成人交通月票(Adult Monthly Travel Pass),每人每年平均花费 1440 美元,就可以无限次的使用地铁和大巴。也许我们永远达不到“零拥车”(零汽车拥有量),但只要我们无限的靠近,就是一个真正了不起的成就。

    The time is also ripe for a change in the public transport ecosystem because with the appearance of services such as Airbnb and Uber, people's attitude towards ownership is changing. Private homes and cars can become hotels and taxis because it has become financially rational to blur those lines. And it is certainly more rational for Singaporean households to shift to public transport. It costs about $20,000 a year to own a Toyota Camry - more when you include varying costs like maintenance, fuel, parking and Electronic Road Pricing. On the other hand, it costs $1,440 per person annually to buy an Adult Monthly Travel Pass from TransitLink, which allows for unlimited train and bus rides. We may never actually get to zero-car ownership. But even if we get near there, it would be a truly remarkable accomplishment.

    发展世界上最好的生态公交系统,好处是显而易见的。我们将得到比世界上任何城市都要好的机动性服务。我们将拥有“零拥堵”,而且永远不必担心迟到。这将提高新加坡的经济效率,使我们成为更具吸引力的高附加值投资目的地。

    The benefits of developing the world's best ecosystem of public transport are clear. We will get the best mobility of any city anywhere in the world. We will have zero traffic jams and will never have to worry about arriving late anywhere. This will enhance the economic efficiency of Singapore and make us an even more attractive destination for high-value-added investments.

    然而,心灵上的收益会比这些物质上的收益更为重要。

    But these material gains are less important than the spiritual gains.

    当崇拜汽车这样的物品时,我们将永远不快乐。总会有人的车比我们的更好。古往今来,伟大的哲学家们一直强调,幸福不会来自于对物品的占有。古希腊哲学家德谟克利特说:“幸福不在于拥有财产,不在于拥有黄金;幸福来自于我们的灵魂。”

    When we worship material goods like cars, we will be perpetually unhappy. Someone else will always have a better car than ours. Through the ages, the great philosophers have always said that happiness never comes from owning things. Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus said: "Happiness resides not in possessions, and not in gold; happiness dwells in the soul."

    约翰·拉斯金说:“每一份新的财产,都会带来新的不安。”伯特兰?罗素也说过:“一门心思只想着拥有财产,相比其他事,更会让我们丧失生存的自由和高贵。”

    John Ruskin said: "Every increased possession loads us with new weariness." And Bertrand Russell said: "It is the preoccupation with possessions, more than anything else, that prevents us from living freely and nobly."

    幸福不会来源于拥有最昂贵的车,而来源于更有意义和目标的生活。发展世界上最好的生态公交系统,会让我们的生活更有目标,更具价值。

    Happiness does not come from owning the most expensive car, but from living a life of greater meaning and purpose. And developing the best ecosystem of public transport in the world will help us gain meaning and purpose in our lives.

    如果公共交通委员会(PTB)像住房委员会(HDB)和经济发展委员会(EDB)一样成功,我们最终会拥有一个没有尾气污染、没有交通拥堵、更干净、更绿色的城市。我们将在地球上创造一个最受尊敬的城市。我们将会给亚洲其他周边城市提供一个可选择的模式,这些城市正遭受着严重的交通拥堵,比如吉隆坡、雅加达、曼谷、马尼拉、新德里和北京。

    If we are as successful with PTB as we have been with HDB and EDB, and we end up with an even cleaner and greener city with no traffic fumes and no traffic jams, we will create the most admired city on planet earth. We will have provided an alternative model for the Asian cities around us that are suffering because of massive traffic jams, such as Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta, Bangkok and Manila, New Delhi and Beijing.

    亚洲正在快速的城市化。世界上人口最多的十个城市,有七个在亚洲。世界银行发现,从 2000 年到 2010 年,东亚有 2 亿人移居到了城市。与此同时,从 2001 年到 2011 年,南亚有 1.3 亿人口移居到了城市,并且到 2030 年,这个数量将增加到 2.5 亿。

    Asia is urbanising quickly. Of the 10 most populous cities in the world, seven are in Asia. The World Bank has found that from 2000 to 2010, nearly 200 million people moved to urban areas in East Asia. Meanwhile, the urban population in South Asia grew by 130 million between 2001 and 2011, and will rise by nearly 250 million by 2030.

    与此同时,亚洲的中产阶级正在快速增长。据布鲁斯金学会霍米?哈拉斯的估计,到 2030 年,亚洲的中产阶级将占全球的 64%,超过 40% 的全球中产阶级消费将在这里产生。这些中产阶级仍然做着拥有私家车的“美国梦”。当他们实现自己的“美国梦”时,他们在各自的城市中制造出生活的噩梦。

    At the same time, the Asian middle class is growing rapidly. Brookings Institution's Homi Kharas estimates that by 2030, Asia will account for 64 per cent of the global middle class, and over 40 per cent of global middle-class consumption. These middle-class urbanites are still holding on to the American dream of private car ownership. And as they fulfil their individual American dreams, they create living nightmares in their cities.

    新加坡打造新的世界级公交系统,可以看做人类的一个新梦想。想象一下,如果亚洲新中产阶级决定复制新加坡的“零车”梦想,我们的地球将会变得多么美好。施比受有福,真正的幸福来自于帮助别人。如果小小的新加坡可以帮助人类,我们将成为世界上最幸福的人。

    Singapore's new world-class ecosystem of public transport can serve as an alternative dream for humanity. Just imagine how much better our planet earth will be if the new Asian middle classes decide to copy the new Singapore dream of zero-car ownership. The true road to happiness always comes from helping others. If tiny Singapore can help humanity, we will become the happiest people in the world.

    来源:微信公众号·市政厅>>新加坡国立大学李光耀公共政策学院院长·马凯硕/文 上海财经大学副教授·冯苏苇/译>>可持续交通|新加坡:通往“零拥车”之路

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    1. 最怕的是:别人的理想,自己的白日梦。

      爱折腾的交通人 博 主 7年前 (2015-12-27) [0] [0]
    
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